The Stock Market in July

Since 1970 the FTSE All-Share Index has seen an average return of 0.8% in July, with 54% of years seeing positive returns in this month. This makes July the fifth strongest month of the year for shares. As can be seen in the accompanying chart, in the last nine years the market has only fallen twice in July; so currently July is on a roll.

Monthly returns of FTSE All Share Index - July (1984-2017) 2

The average July

In an average July the start of the month tends to be strong ­ the first week of the month is among the top ten strongest weeks in the year. After that, the market has a tendency to drift lower for a couple of weeks until finishing strongly in the final week of the month.

July is one of only three months (the others being September and October) where the FTSE 100 tends to out-perform the mid-cap FTSE 250, although the out-performance in July is not significantly large (an average of 0.1 percentage points since 1986). Better is the performance of the FTSE 100 relative to the S&P 500, in sterling terms July is the second-best month for the FTSE 100 (the UK index has out-performed the US index by an average of 1.0 percentage points since 1984).

Sectors

Historically the sectors that have been strong in July are Banks, Real Estate Investment Trusts, and Software & Computer Services, while weak sectors have been Electricity, Industrial Transportation, and Health Care Equipment & Services.

Companies

On the shares front, companies that have seen strong share performance in July have been: Travis Perkins [TPK], Renishaw [RSW], Morgan Advanced Materials [MGAM], Bodycote [BOY], and Elementis [ELM]. The latter’s shares have only fallen once in July in the past ten years. Companies that have historically performed weakly in July are: TalkTalk Telecom Group [TALK], SSE [SSE], CRH [CRH], Redefine International [RDI], Babcock International Group [BAB]. Shares of SSE have fallen every year in July except one in the past ten years ­ the worst record of any FTSE 350 stock.

Diary

July is a busy month for companies announcing their interim results: 28 FTSE 100 companies will be doing so and 47 FTSE 250 companies.

On the economics front: there is the US Nonfarm payroll report on the 6th, and the two-day FOMC meeting starts on the 31st. The New York Stock Exchange will be closed on 4th July.


Article first appeared in Money Observer

Further articles on the market in July.

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The Stock Market in May

It’s that time of the year again when stock market lore advises investors to get out of the market and, effectively, go on holiday for six months. And, indeed, Sell in May has been good advice over certain periods, for example since 1970 the average return in May for the FTSE All-Share Index has been -0.4% (making it one of only three months that has a negative return ­ the other two being June and September).

Monthly returns of FTSE All Share Index - May (1984-2017)

However, in recent years equities have performed somewhat better in May. Since 2000, the market has seen more Mays with positive month returns than negative and, as can be seen in the accompanying chart, in the last five years the market has been up every May (last year, in 2017, the FTSE All-Share Index had a not insignificant month return of 3.9%).

So, why does May have a bad reputation for shares, and why is the saying “sell in May” so popular?

One reason can be seen in the chart. Although the proportion of positive and negative month returns in May are roughly equal, it can be seen that the positive returns in May are relatively low, whereas when the market falls in May it can suffer quite a large sell-off. In May 2012 the FTSE All-Share Index fell 7.5%, which the largest fall in the index in any month in the last six years.

The average May

In an average May the market trades fairly flat for the first two weeks of the month, and then prices drift lower in the second half.

Stocks

At the stock level, in the last ten years the FTSE 350 shares with the best average performance in May have been: Aveva Group [AVV], 3i Group [III], Babcock International Group [BAB], Cranswick [CWK], and Severn Trent [SVT]. All these stocks have only seen a negative return in May in one year since 2007. While the FTSE 350 shares with the worst record in May have been Petra Diamonds [PDL], Ferrexpo [FXPO], Thomas Cook Group [TCG], Acacia Mining [ACA], and Carillion [CLLN],

Diary

Coming up in May we have the two-day FOMC meeting starting on the 1st, US Nonfarm payroll report on the 4th, May Day bank holiday on the 7th (LSE closed), MPC interest rate announcement on the 10th, Spring bank holiday on the 28th (LSE and NYSE closed), and the quarterly 30th.


Article first appeared in Money Observer

Further articles on the market in May.

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The Stock Market in April

Since 1970, the FTSE All-Share Index has fallen in April in only nine years. This is quite remarkable, and not surprisingly makes April the strongest month of the year for equities. The average return for the index in the month since 1970 is 2.6%, again this is the best performance of any month of the year by quite a margin. Although in recent years, the market’s performance in April has not been so stellar. Since 2000, the average return of the FTSE All-Share Index in April has been 1.8%, with positive month returns seen in 12 of the last 18 years. And it might be noted that the market actually fell in April of last year.

Monthly returns of FTSE All Share Index - April (1984-2017)

The market often gets off to a strong start in the month – the first trading day of April is the second strongest first trading day of all months in the year. The market then tends to be fairly flat for the middle two weeks and then rising strongly in the final week.

End of the strong half of the year

Investors need to make the most of April. After this month the market enters a six-month period when equities have tended to tread water (the Sell in May effect).

Sectors

The FTSE 350 sectors that tend to be strong in April are: Industrial Engineering, General Retailers, and Oil & Gas Producers; while the weaker sectors are: Construction & Materials, Household Goods, and Media.

Stocks

At the stock level, the five FTSE 350 shares with the best April volatility-adjusted returns over the past ten years are: JD Sports Fashion [JD.], Ashmore Group [ASHM], Renishaw [RSW], UDG Healthcare [UDG], and Weir Group [WEIR]. Just two FTSE 350 stocks have seen their shares rise in every April since 2007: JD Sports Fashion and Temple Bar Investment Trust. The FTSE 350 stocks with the weakest record in April have been: Balfour Beatty [BBY], BAE Systems [BA.], RELX [REL], Booker Group [BOK], and Pearson [PSON]. Since 2007 the shares of Balfour Beatty and RELX have seen positive returns in April in only three years.

FTSE 100 v S&P 500

This is the strongest month for the FTSE 100 relative to the S&P 500 (in sterling terms), the former out-performs the latter by an average of 1.3 percentage points in April ­ the UK index has out-performed the US index (in sterling terms) in April in 14 of the past 16 years.

Easter holiday

It’s Easter on 1st April so the LSE will be closed on the 2nd (Easter Monday). A famous anomaly in stock markets is that prices tend to be strong on the day preceding and the day following a holiday. This effect is strongest in the year around the Easter holiday.


Article first appeared in Money Observer

Further articles on the market in April.

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The Stock Market in March

Since 1990 the market has had an average return of 0.2% in March, with returns positive in 54% of all years. This ranks March seventh among months of the year for market performance. Although as can be seen in the accompanying chart, negative returns have been seen in March with increasing frequency in recent years.

Monthly returns of FTSE All Share Index - March (1984-2017)

The general trend for the market in March is to rise for the first three weeks and then fall back in the final week – the last week of March has historically been one of the weakest weeks for the market in the whole year.

Small cap v large cap

Small cap stocks tend to outperform large cap stocks at the beginning of the year, and March marks the final month of the three-month period when the FTSE 250 strongly out-performs the FTSE 100. Since 1986 in March on average the FTSE 250 has out-performed the FTSE 100 by 0.8 percentage points.

Sectors

The sectors that tend to be strong in March are: Chemicals, Industrial Engineering, Industrial Transportation, Oil Equipment, Services & Distribution, and Support Services. The Chemicals and Oil Equipment, Services & Distribution sectors have seen positive returns every March for the past 11 years. While the weak sectors in March have been: Banks, Fixed Line Telecommunications, Gas, Water & Multiutilities, Nonlife Insurance, and Pharmaceuticals & Biotechnology. The Banks sector has the worst record: it has seen positive returns in only three of the past 11 years.

Shares

For stocks, the FTSE 350 shares that have performed the best over the last ten years in March are: IWG [IWG], Clarkson [CKN], Senior [SNR], Intertek Group [ITRK], and Petrofac Ltd [PFC]. Clarkson, Intertek, and Petrofac shares have only been down in March once in the past 11 years. The weakest FTSE 350 shares in March have been Vectura Group [VEC], Lancashire Holdings Ltd [LRE], Kier Group [KIE], Renishaw [RSW], and HSBC Holdings [HSBA].

Dividends

March is the busiest month of the year for FTSE 100 companies paying dividends. And it’s also a busy month for company announcements: the busiest for FTSE 250 companies in the year with 71 companies announcing their prelims this month (along with 24 FTSE 100 companies).

Aside from stocks, March has often been a weak month for gold and a strong month for oil.

Holidays

It’s Good Friday at the end of the month. A famous anomaly in stock markets is that prices tend to be strong on the day preceding and the day following a holiday. This effect is strongest in the year around the Easter holiday.


Article first appeared in Money Observer

Further articles on the market in March.

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Nikkei 225 performance in January

The following chart plots the month returns of the Nikkei 225 Index in January for the period 1980-2017.

Nikkei 225 performance in January [1980-2017]

In the 40 years from 1950 to 1989, the Nikkei 225 Index only fell in January in 6 years. After that, as can be seen in the above chart, the record became quite a bit more patchy. For example, in the 10 years since 2008, the Index has fallen over 8% in January four times.

Further analysis of the Nikkei 225 Index in January over different time periods can be seen in the following table.

Nikkei 225 in January [1980-2017]

In the 68 years from 1950 to 2017 the Index had an average month return in January of 2.5%, and saw positive returns in 69% of years. But since year 2000 this has dramatically changed (as was also the case of the US and UK markets). Since 2000, the Index has had an average return in January of -1.6%, the worst average return of any month in this period.

The following charts plots the cumulative returns for the 12 respective months since 1980 (for more explanation of this chart see here).

Nikkei 225 Index cumulative returns by month [1980-2017]

The cumulative portfolio for January has been highlighted in the above chart.

The cumulative performance of January peaked in 2001, at which point it was the best performing month in the year. Since 2001, the cumulative performance has dramatically under-performed that of other months.

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S&P 500 performance in January

The following chart plots the month returns of the S&P 500 Index for January for the period 1980-2017.

S&P 500 performance in January [1980-2017]

The characteristic of the market in January seems to have changed around the year 2000.

In the 20 years from 1980 to 1999 the S&P 500 index only fell in 5 years. But in the 18 years since 2000 the index has fallen in 10 years.

Further analysis of the S&P 500 Index in January over different periods can be seen in the following table.

S&P 500 in January [1980-2017]

In the 68 years from 1950 to 2017 the Index had an average month return in January of 0.9%, and saw positive returns in 59% of years. But since year 2000 this has dramatically changed, with an average month return of -1.1% and positive returns seen in only 44% of years.

Since 2000, January has the weakest record of performance for the S$P 500 Index.

The following chart plots the cumulative returns from 1980 for 12 portfolios, where each portfolio invests each year exclusively in just one of the 12 respective months. (and is in cash for the other 12 months of the year).

The best performing month over this period has been April, investing in just the month of April each year would have grown an investment of $100 in 1980 to $179 in 2017.

The worst month has been September (the bottom line in the following chart): a $100 investing just in the month of September would be worth $76 by 2017.

 

S&P 500 Index cumulative returns by month [1980-2017]

The cumulative portfolio for January has been highlighted in the above chart.

It can see that by year 2000, January was the strongest of all the months in the year, but that record changed after 2000. By 2017 the $100 would have grown to 130.

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Santa Rally 2017

The Santa Rally describes the tendency of the market to rise in the last two weeks of the year.

In 2017 the FTSE 100 Index had a return of +2.6% in the last two weeks of the year. So the Santa Rally effect held in 2017.

As can be seen in the following chart, the Santa Rally has only failed to deliver in two years since 2000.

Santa Rally [2000-2017]

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The Stock Market in January

January used to be one of the strongest months for shares in the whole year. From 1984 to 1999 the average FTSE All-Share return in the month was 3.3%, and as can be seen in the accompanying chart in those 16 years the market only fell twice in January. But after year 2000 things changed dramatically.

Since 2000 the average market return in January has been -1.6% with the market seeing positive returns in only six years, and in four years since 2000 the market has fallen more than 5% in the month. This makes January the worst of all months for shares since 2000.

Monthly returns of FTSE All Share Index - January (1984-2017)

January Effect

In the stock market this month is famous for the imaginatively-titled January Effect. This describes the tendency of small cap stocks to out-perform large caps in the month. This anomaly was first observed in the US, but it applies to the UK market as well. For example, since 1999 the FTSE Fledgling index out-performed the FTSE 100 Index in January every year until 2015. The small cap index under-performed large caps again in January 2016, suggesting that the anomaly was no more. But the historical trend re-asserted itself in 2017, with small caps out-performing large caps by 3.9 percentage points in January last year.

Outlook for 2018

Since 1800 the market has generally been relatively strong in the eighth year of the decade. It has been especially strong since 1958, with an average annual return of 11.0% and up every eight year of the decade until…yep, 2008. In that year the market fell 33% ­which has rather dented the performance of the decennial eighth years. Remove 2008 from the calculation, and the average annual return in eighth years since 1958 has been a stonking 19.3%.

The guidance from the centennial cycle is also encouraging; in 1718, 1818 and 1918 the respective annual returns for the UK market were +0.6%, +5.5%, and +11.0% ­ a steady progression of increasing returns suggesting a return of around 16% in 2018!

In the Chinese calendar it will be the year of the dog, which is excellent news. Since 1950, dog years (despite the name) have the best record of returns of the 12 zodiac signs. Since 1950, the average annual return for the S&P 500 Index has been 16.8% in dog years.

And, finally, the US presidential cycle has a significant effect on equity markets worldwide, including in the UK. 2018 will be the second year in the cycle and on average the UK market has seen returns of 2.0% in the second year of this cycle.


Article first appeared in Money Observer

Further articles on the market in January.

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Trading around Christmas and New Year

Does the equity market display any particular pattern in the days around Christmas and New Year?

Mean returns

The following chart plots the average daily returns of the FTSE 100 Index for nine days around Christmas and New Year for the periods 1984-2017 and also 2000-2017.

The nine days studied were-

  • Days 1-3: the three trading days leading up to Christmas.
  • Days 4-6: the three trading days between Christmas and New Year.
  • Days 7-9: the first three trading days of the year.

For example, since 1984 the average return of the index on the day before Christmas has been 0.24%

FTSE 100 average daily returns around Christmas and New Year [1984-2017]

Observations

  1. Market strength increases to the fourth day (the trading day immediately after Christmas). Since 1984 the fourth day has been the strongest day of the whole period, with an average daily return of 0.49% (albeit the volatility of returns on this day is high).
  2. Generally the profile of returns for the shorter time range (2000-2017) is similar to that for the whole period from 1984. The one significant difference is that since 2000 the strongest day of the period has been the first trading day of the new year. The new year generally starts strongly on the first day, with performance trailing off the following two days.
  3. The weakest day in the period is the third day of the New Year, followed by the last trading day of the year.

Let’s now see if the pattern of positive returns confirms the above findings.

Positive returns

The following chart plots the proportion of daily returns for the FTSE 100 Index that were positive on the nine days around Christmas and New for the period 1984-2017.

For example, for 84% of the years since 1984 the returns on the day after Christmas were positive.

FTSE 100 positive daily returns around Christmas and New Year [1984-2017]

The profile of behaviour demonstrated by the positive returns is similar to that for the mean returns above.

So, how did equities perform last year around Christmas compared to the average behaviour seen above?

Last year

The following chart replicates the first chart above with the average day returns for the period 2000-2017, and also plots the actual day returns for the nine days around Christmas in 2016.

FTSE 100 Index daily returns around Christmas and New Year

As can be seen, the actual returns last year roughly followed the average pattern since 2000: the strongest days were the days after Christmas and New Year, with performance quickly trailing off after New Year.


Almanac cover - 2018 (small 2)

The above is an extract from the newly published UK Stock Market Almanac 2018.

Order your copy now!

 

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The Stock Market in December

Since 1970 December and April have been the best two months of the year for shares. Since that year the FTSE All-Share Index has risen in December in 74% of all years and the average month return has been 2.1%. In addition, the volatility of December returns is significantly less than any other month.

As can be seen in the accompanying chart the market has only fallen in December in six years since 1984. But two of those negative-return Decembers were very recent: in 2014 and 2015. Which might have led one to wonder if the stellar record of December for shares was ending. However, last year, in 2016, the strength of the market in December reasserted itself when the FTSE All-Share Index rose 4.9% in the month.

Monthly returns of FTSE All Share Index - December (1984-2016)

However, the solid performance of the market in December is only part of a wider trend, namely that from the end of October shares tend to be strong through to the end of the year. This is a result of the Sell in May effect (aka Halloween effect), where equities are relatively strong over the six-month period November – April. So, the market does have a fair following wind at this time of the year, and then in December shares often become super-charged.

The average December

In an average December, shares have in fact tended to be weak in the first couple of weeks of the month, but then around the tenth trading day shares charge upwards. The last two weeks of December is the strongest two-week period of the whole year (and is often referred to as the Santa Rally), and the three days with the highest average daily returns in the year all occur in this two-week period.

Dividends

While December has been a good month for capital gains, it’s the worst month for income investors with only five FTSE 100 companies paying interim or final dividend payments in the month.

Sectors

The FTSE 350 sectors that have tended to be strong in December are: Electronic & Electrical Equipment, Construction & Materials, and Media; while the weak sectors are: Banks, General Retailers, and Fixed Line Telecommunications.

Diary

Dates to watch this month are: 5 Dec ­ FTSE index quarterly reviews announced, 7 Dec – US Nonfarm payroll report, 19 Dec – FOMC announcement on interest rates, 20 Dec – MPC interest rate announcement, 21 Dec – Triple Witching. And note that the London Stock Exchange will close early at 12h30 on the 22nd and will be closed all day on the 25th and 26th.


Article first appeared in Money Observer

Further articles on the market in December.

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